## Basic knowledge for Civil Engineer

Civil engineering is the world's oldest engineering discipline. It was a discipline established to improve people's overall living standards and well-being by developing new solutions to current needs and problems. This blog post will walk you through the fundamentals of civil engineering.# Fundamental Concepts in Civil Engineering

Fundamental concepts in**civil engineering**are fundamental principles and theories that serve as the discipline's foundation. These ideas provide a foundation for understanding the physical laws and properties that govern the behaviour of materials and structures. Some of the most important fundamental concepts in civil engineering are:

**Mechanics of Solids**

Mechanics of solids deals with the behaviour of deformable bodies under various loads and stresses. It includes topics such as stress, strain, elasticity, plasticity, and failure.

### Fluid Mechanics

It is the study of the behaviour of fluids under different conditions like pressure, temperature and velocity. It includes topics such as Bernoulli's equation, fluid statics, and fluid dynamics.

## Surveying and Geomatics

Surveying and geomatics deal with the measurement and mapping of the surface of the earth. It contains topics such as plane surveying, geodetic surveying, remote sensing and geographic information systems.

### Materials Science and Engineering

Materials science and engineering involve the study of the properties, behaviour and performance of materials utilized in construction. It includes topics such as the structure of materials, mechanical properties, and durability.

### Mathematics in Civil Engineering

Mathematics is a fundamental tool used in civil engineering. It includes topics like calculus, differential equations, linear algebra and probability theory.

### Geotechnical Engineering

It is the study of soil & rock mechanics which are required for the design and construction of foundations, retaining structures, tunnels and other underground structures.

### Structural Analysis

It involves the study of the behaviour of structures under various loads & stresses. It includes topics such as statics, dynamics, and structural stability.

### Structural Design

It involves the selection & sizing of structural components like beams, columns and foundations to confirm the safe and efficient transfer of loads.

### Primary Knowledge for Civil Engineers

- The weight of a first-class brick should not be less than 3.85 kg.

- The tensile strength of a first-class brick should be at least 3000 lbs per inch square.

- The standard building height is 315 centimetres.

- The standard riser height should be 15 centimetres.

- The length of one hook should not be less than 9D.

- For first-class bricks, the water content should be 1/5 or 1/6 of the brick weight.

- The window height should be 120 cm.

- The DBC thickness should be at least 2.5 centimetres.

- The lintel thickness should be 15 cm.

- The normal and local sand FM limits should be between 0.5 and 0.8.

### Knowledge of Civil Engineering for Interviews

**Staircase Slope:**According to Indian standard code 456-2000, the slope of the staircase ranges from 25° to 40°.

**Cement Bag Volume**: Because one cement bag weighs 50 kg, its volume is 0.0347 m3 or 1.23 CFT.

**Cement Bag Expiry Date:**The expiration date is three months after the bag is packed.

**What is the purpose of the foundation?**: The foundation is provided to safely distribute the load of the structure in the soil.

**Foundation Types**:**1. S**hallow foundation**2.**Deep foundation

- The minimum concrete grade for
**RCC M20**

### On-site civil engineering knowledge

**Dead Load**refers to the structure's self-weight.

- DPC stands for Damp Proof Course. The thickness of the DPC should not be less than 2.5cm.

- If the sand contains more than 5% moisture, it should not be used in a concrete mix.

- The RCC cure period is 28 days.

- Ties are the transverse reinforcement provided in columns.

- Stirrups are the transverse reinforcement provided in Beams.

- Stirrups in Beams and Ties in Columns are used to handle shear force and keep longitudinal bars in place.

- M20 concrete grade is used in the slab's construction.

- The hook length should be at least 9D. (Where D denotes the Diameter of Bar)

- The rise of the stairs ranges from 150 to 200 millimetres.

- The tread on a staircase is between 250 and 300 millimetres.

- The stair's slope or pitch should range from 25 degrees to 40 degrees.

- Steel is 7850 kg/m2, while PCC is 24 KN/m2 and RCC is 25 KN/m2.

- Construction projects cannot use cement that is older than three months.

- A standard brick measures 19 cm by 9 cm by 4 cm.

### Bar Bending Schedule in Civil Engineering

## Key Principles in Civil Engineering

**Strength of Materials**

The strength of materials is the study of the behaviour of solid objects under various types of forces and loads. This principle is essential in designing and analyzing structures such as buildings, bridges, and tunnels.

**Stresses and Strains**

Stress and strain refer to the internal forces and deformations that occur in materials under external loads. Understanding these principles is critical in designing structures that can withstand various types of loads and stresses.

**Forces and Moments**

Forces and moments are the physical quantities that describe the motion and equilibrium of structures. Understanding these principles is essential in designing and analyzing structures that are stable and safe.

**Statics and Dynamics**

Statics and dynamics refer to the study of objects that are at rest or in motion, respectively. These principles are critical in analyzing the behaviour of structures under different types of loads and stresses.

**Thermodynamics**

It is the study of the relationship between heat, energy and work. Understanding these principles is essential in designing & analyzing heating, cooling and ventilation systems in buildings and other structures.